WPE Networking Overview

At the heart of any browser engine is networking: Connecting with services and other users. Unlike other engines, WebKit approaches this more abstractly by leaving a large portion of the networking up to individual ports. This includes network protocols such as HTTP, WebSockets, and WebRTC. The upside to this approach is a higher level of integration with the system-provided libraries and features so WebKit will behave similarly to other software on the platform often with more centralized configuration.

Due to this abstraction there are a few independent layers that make up the networking stack of WPE. In this post, I’ll break down what each layer accomplishes as well as give some insight into the codebase’s structure.

Networking Layers

WebKit Network Layers


Before we get into the libraries used for WPE, let’s discuss WebKit itself. Despite abstracting out a lot of the protocol handling, WebKit itself still needs to understand a lot of fundamentals of HTTP.

WebCore (discussed in WPE Overview) understands HTTP requests, headers, and cookies, as they are required to implement many higher-level features. What it does not do is the network operations, most parsing, or on-disk storage. In the codebase, these are represented by ResourceRequest and ResourceResponse objects, which map to general HTTP functionality.


A core part of modern web engine security is the multi-process model. In order to defend against exploits, each website runs in its own isolated process that does not have network access. In order to allow for network access, they must talk over IPC to a dedicated NetworkProcess, typically one per browser instance. The NetworkProcess receives a ResourceRequest, creates a NetworkDataTask with it to download the data, and responds with a ResourceResponse to the WebProcess which looks like this:

WebKit Network Flowchart


WPE implements the platform-specific versions of the classes above as ResourceRequestSoup and NetworkDataTaskSoup, primarily using a library called libsoup.

The libsoup library was originally created for the GNOME project’s email client and has since grown to be a very featureful HTTP implementation, now maintained by Igalia.

At a high level, the main task that libsoup does is manage connections and queued requests to websites and then efficiently streams the responses back to WPE. Properly implementing HTTP is a fairly large task, and this is a non-exhaustive list of features it implements: HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2, WebSockets, cookies, decompression, multiple authentication standards, HSTS, and HTTP proxies.

On its own, libsoup is really focused on the HTTP layer and uses the GLib library to implement many of its networking features in a portable way. This is where TCP, DNS, and TLS are handled. It is also directly used by WebKit for URI parsing and DNS pre-caching.

Using GLib also helps standardize behavior across modern Linux systems. It allows configuration of a global proxy resolver that WebKit, along with other applications, can use.


Another unique detail of our stack is that TLS is fully abstracted inside of GLib by a project called GLib-Networking. This project provides multiple implementations of TLS that can be chosen at runtime, including OpenSSL and gnutls on Linux. The benefit here is that clients can choose the implementation they prefer—whether for licensing, certification, or technical reasons.


Let’s go step by step to see some real world usage. If we call webkit_web_view_load_uri() for a new domain it will:

  1. Create a ResourceRequest in WebCore that represents an HTTP request with a few basic headers set.
    • ResourceRequestSoup will create its own internal representation for the request using soup_message_new_for_uri().
  2. This is passed to the NetworkProcess to load this request as a NetworkDataTask.
  3. NetworkDataTaskSoup will send/receive the request/response with soup_session_send() which queues the message to be sent.
  4. libsoup will connect to the host using GSocketClient which does a DNS lookup and TCP connection.
    • If this is a TLS connection GTlsClientConnection will use a library such as gnutls to do a TLS handshake.
  5. libsoup will write the HTTP request and read from the socket parsing the HTTP responses eventually returning the data to WebKit.
  6. WebKit receives this data, along with periodic updates about the state of the request, and sends it out of the NetworkProcess back to the main process as a ResourceResponse eventually loading the data in the WebProcess.


In conclusion, WebKit provides a very flexible abstraction for platforms, and WPE leverages mature system libraries to provide a portable implementation. It has many layers, but they are all well organized and suited to their tasks.

If you are working with WPE and are interested in collaborating, feel free to contact us. If you are interested in working with Igalia, you can apply here.

This article was written by Patrick Griffis.

Patrick has been contributing to WebKit since 2018 and does work around networking, security, and the platform libraries WPE uses.

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If you’re using WPE WebKit, or are considering doing so, please take our brief user survey! Your input will help us make WPE WebKit better for you.